Sankethi Dialect

Sankethi (sometimes spelled Sanketi) is a South Dravidian language that is closely related to the Tamil. It is sometimes considered a dialect of Kannada or Tamil, but there are considerable differences that make it unintelligible to speakers of both languages. It has strong lexical influences from Kannada (particularly in the colloquial language), as well as Sanskrit, Tamil and Tulu. It is most commonly spoken in Karnataka, India by the Sankethi people, who migrated from Sengottai in Tamilnadu. The language is most often written in the Kannada script, though it could be written in Tamil as well. However, Sankethi (especially in the spoken form) has relatively higher frequencies of consonant clusters of more than two consonants and semivowels. This makes it difficult to write in the Kannada script, which would require multiple subscripted letters (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರ - ottakṣara). As a result, Sankethi is rarely found in printed or any written form, and has no standardized form.

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Explanation

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Sankethi
Native toKarnataka
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologsank1249[1]

Sankethi (sometimes spelled Sanketi) is a South Dravidian language that is closely related to the Tamil. It is sometimes considered a dialect of Kannada or Tamil, but there are considerable differences that make it unintelligible to speakers of both languages. It has strong lexical influences from Kannada (particularly in the colloquial language), as well as Sanskrit, Tamil and Tulu[2][3]. It is most commonly spoken in Karnataka, India by the Sankethi people, who migrated from Sengottai in Tamilnadu.

The language is most often written in the Kannada script, though it could be written in Tamil as well. However, Sankethi (especially in the spoken form) has relatively higher frequencies of consonant clusters of more than two consonants and semivowels. This makes it difficult to write in the Kannada script, which would require multiple subscripted letters (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರ - ottakṣara). As a result, Sankethi is rarely found in printed or any written form, and has no standardized form.

Phonology

Sankethi phonology is very similar to Kannada and Tamil, with the classical Sanskrit aspirates and retroflex laterals characteristic of many Dravidian languages. Like a few other South Indian languages including Konkani, Marathi, and Saurashtra, the language has a few uncommon aspirates: [ʋʰ], [nʰ], and [ʃʰ], though both most often appear in their palatalized forms. Its presence is usually marked by the presence of long vowels, as well as syllable finally (where they are often palatalized in that position). See the table below for the range of Sankethi consonants.

Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal plain mm n ɳ ɲñ ŋ
aspirated ʰ ನ್ಹ
Stop plain pp bb t d ʈ ɖ t͡ʃc d͡ʒj kk ɡg
aspirated ph bh t̪ʰth d̪ʱdh ʈʰṭh ɖʱḍh t͡ʃʰch d͡ʒʱjh kh ɡʱgh
Fricative s ʂ ʃ ಶ ś hh
aspirated ʃʰ ಶ್ಹ śh
Approximant central ʋv y ಯ y
aspirated ʋʰ ವ್ಹ vh
lateral ll ɭ
Rhotic r ರ r

Sankethi vowels are very similar to Tamil vowels:

Vowel ISO 15919 IPA
a [ʌ]
ā [ɑː]
i [i]
ī [iː]
u [u], [ɯ]
ū [uː]
e [e]
ē [eː]
ai [ʌj]
o [o]
ō [oː]
au [ʌʋ]

In Sankethi, some nouns that end in ಒ (o) have a final nasal sound, which is not indicated with the anusvāra when written down. This is especially prevalent in the Kaushika dialect.

Vocabulary

Below is a table comparing some basic words in Sankethi, Kannada, and Tamil.

Sankethi Kannada Tamil English
ಪಲ್ಯು/ತಾಳ್ದು(palyu/tāḷdu) ಪಲ್ಯ(palya) பொரியல்(poriyal) sauteed/fried vegetable dish
ಚಾರು (cāru) ಸಾರು(sāru) ரசம்(rasam) broth/soup
ತಯಿರು(tayiru) ಮೊಸರು(mosaru) தயிர் (tayir) yogurt
ಮೋರು(mōru) ಮಜ್ಜಿಗೆ(majjige) மோர் (mōr) buttermilk
ನೆಲ್ಲ್(nel) ಭತ್ತ(bhatta) நெல் (nel) unhusked rice
ಅರಶಿ (araśi) ಅಕ್ಕಿ (akki) அரிசி (arici) uncooked rice
ಸಾಂ (sāṃ) ಅನ್ನ(anna) சாதம்(sādam) cooked rice
ತೇನು (tēnu) ಜೇನಿನತುಪ್ಪ(jēnina tuppa) தேன் (tēn) honey
ವಣ್ಣ (vaṇṇa) ಬೆಣ್ಣೆ(beṇṇe) வெண்ணெய்(veṇṇey) butter
ನೈ (nai) ತುಪ್ಪ(tuppa) நெய் (ney) ghee
ವೆಲ್ಲು (vellu) ಬೆಲ್ಲ(bella) வெல்லம்(vellam) jaggery
ಮಂಜ(maṃja) ಅರಶಿನ(araśina) மஞ்சள்(maṇjaḷ) turmeric
ಪರ್ಪು(parpu) ಬೇಳೆ(bēḷe) பருப்பு(paruppu) lentil

Grammar

Nouns

Sankethi grammar is fairly similar to those of most other Dravidian languages, with six cases: nominative (unmarked), accusative, instrumental-ablative, dative, genitive, and locative. The vocative is not fully functional case, and not all nouns have a separate form for it, and as such is not included in the traditional list.

Like Tamil, there is clusivity distinction: ನಾಂಗ (nānga; exclusive) VS ನಾಂಬು (nāmbu/ inclusive), though the frequency usage varies. A good example of its usage is the Sankethi endonym for the language: ಎಂಗಡೆ ವಾರ್ಥೆ (eṃgaḍe vārthe), which implies that the language belongs to the speaker and the Sankethi community, so as to distinguish it from a shared language.

Below is a table of pronouns:

ನಾ - na - I ನಾಂಗ/ನಾಂಬ - nānga/nāṃba - we (exclusive/inclusive)
ನೀ - ni - you ನೀಂಗ/ತಾಂಗ - nīnga/tānga - (you all/you (polite))/you (very polite)
(ಇವು/ಅವು)/(ಇವೆ/ಅವೆ) - (ivu/avu)/(ive/ave) - (proximal/distal) he/she ಇವ್ಹಾ(ಳು)/ಅವ್ಹ(ಳು)- ivhāḷu/avhāḷu- they (human)
ಇದು/ಅದು- idu/adu - this/that (non-human) (it/[this/that]) ಇವ್ಹ್ಯ/ಅವ್ಹ್ಯ - ivhya/avhya - they (non-human)

Polite versions of he and she are ಇವ್ಹು/ಅವ್ಹು (ivhu/avhu) and ಇವ್ಹೆ/ಅವ್ಹೆ (ivhe/avhe). However, these are increasingly rare and replaced by ಇವ್ಹಾ/ಅವ್ಹಾ (ivhā/avhā), perhaps as an influence from Kannada. ತಾಂಗ is usually found only in religious contexts, and even then, nīnga is often preferred. ತಾಂಗ and ನೀಂಗ have the same inflections and verb conjugations. The use of ಇವ್ಹ್ಯ/ಅವ್ಹ್ಯ is increasingly rare, since the word was historically used to refer to people outside the Sankethi community. Eventually it acquired a more general, pejorative meaning of “those people (outsiders)”, and as such is rarely used.

Case Declension

The declensional classes are similar to Kannada, marked by animate versus inanimate and weak (ಇ, ಈ, ಎ, ಏ, ಐ) versus strong vowel (ಅ, ಆ, ಉ, ಊ, ಒ, ಓ, ಔ, ಋ) endings. Gender only exists for human nouns, and is only relevant in the third person verb conjugations. Generally, the verb classes are delineated as 1st (animate strong vowel ending), 2nd (inanimate strong vowel ending), 3rd (animate weak vowel ending), and 4th (inanimate weak vowel ending).

Though Sankethi vocabulary is not systematized, there are some general rules for taking nouns from Sanskrit, Tamil, Kannada, or Malayalam.

  • Most words of Dravidian origin in Kannada that end in ಅ (a) in Kannada and Tamil/Malayalam words ending in உ/ന് (the half u), including proper nouns, end in the half ಉ [ɯ] in Sankethi.
  • Words of Sanskrit origin (though there are exceptions) tend to end in ಒ (oṃ); a way to tell if this is the case is to see if the Telugu, Tamil, or Malayalam cognate ends in the anusvāra (the ) or the ending -am. If it does, the word will most likely end in the nasalized oṃ, which is usually written with ಒ because there is no way to indicate a nasalized vowel in the Kannada script (as noted before). Ex. Sankethi ಪಳೊ is related to Tamil பழம், which ends in -am. Therefore, ಪಳೊ is pronounced with a final ಒಂ.
  • However, as a rule, most words that end in e in Kannada and ai in Tamil end in a in Sankethi (even if the second rule applies; is especially true of Sanskrit loans). Ex. Compare Kannada ಪ್ರಾರ್ಥನೆ (prārthane) and Tamil பிரார்த்தனை (prārthanai), which is ಪ್ರಾರ್ಥನ (prārthana) in Sankethi.

See the table below for case declensions. The nominative is the base form of a given noun, and as such is not included in the table below.

Case 1st Class 2nd Class 3rd Class 4th Class
Accusative -ಅ/-ನ್ (singular)

-ಅಂಗಳ (plural)

-ತ -ಯ -ವ
Instrumental-Ablative -ೊಣ್ಣು/- ್ನಣ್ಣು (singular)

-ಂಗಳಣ್ಣು (plural)

-ತಣ್ಣು -ಯಣ್ಣು -ಅಣ್ಣು
Dative -ಂಕ್ಕು(singular)

-ಗಳಕ್ಕು(plural)

-ತಕ್ಕು -ಕ್ಕು -ಅಕ್ಕಾಹ
Genitive -ಂದು/ಂದೆ (singular)

-ಗಡು/ಗಡೆ (plural)

-ತದು/ತದೆ/ತೆ -ಂದು/ಂದೆ -ಅದು/ಅದೆ/ಅತ್ತೆ/ಅತ್ತು
Locative - ್ನಲ್ಲೆ (singular)

-ಂಗಳಲ್ಲೆ (plural)

-ತಲ್ಲೆ -(ಯ)ಲ್ಲೆ -ಅಲ್ಲೆ

Verbs

Verbs in Sankethi have two kinds of verbs stems. There are verbs that end in ಉ/ಒ (u/o) and ಇ/ಎ (i/e). Generally speaking, they undergo the following changes during conjugation

  • -ಉ/ಒ verbs (strong vowel stems) simply drop their final vowel before taking endings
  • -ಇ/ಎ verbs (weak vowel stems) add the euphonic ಯ್ (y) before adding the endings. However, in speech, the ಎ is reduced to ಇ, and even then the final vowel disappears, resulting in a palatalized consonant between the stem and ending.

Below are tables that show different tenses, given for the verb ಸಾಪಡು (to eat/drink):

Non-Past Simple

ನಾ ಸಾಪಡಣಿ - nā sāpaḍaṇi ಅದು ಸಾಪಡಂದು - adu sāpaḍaṃdu
*ನೀ ಸಾಪಡಂಡ್ಯ/ಸಾಪಡಾಂದೆಯ -

nī sapaḍaṃḍya/sāpaḍāṃdeyā (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ಸಾಪಡಣೂಂ/ಸಾಪಡಣೊ - nanga sāpaḍaṇūṃ/sāpaḍaṇo
ಅವು ಸಾಪಡಣ/ಸಾಪಡಣು - avu sāpaḍaṇa *ನೀಂಗ ಸಾಪಡಂಢ್ಯೊ/ಸಾಪಡಂಢಿಳ -

nīnga sāpaḍaṃḍhyo/sāpaḍaṃḍhiḷa (statement/question)

ಅವೆ ಸಾಪಡಂಡ - ave sāpaḍaṃḍa ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಸಾಪಡಂಡ - avhāḷa sāpaḍaṃḍa

*In all tenses, the ನೀ form's final -್ಯ (-ya) becomes -ಎಯ (-eya) as a question, and the ನೀಂಗ form changes from -್ಯೊ (-yo) to -ಿಳ (-iḷa) as a question.

Non-Past/Present Perfect

ನಾ ಸಾಪಡಾಂಡ್ರಾಣಿ- nā sāpaḍānḍrāṇi ಅದು ಸಾಪಡಾಂಡ್ರಾಂದು - adu sāpaḍānḍrāndu
ನೀ ಸಾಪಡಾಂಡ್ರಾಂಡ್ಯ - nī sāpaḍāṇḍrānḍya (statement/question) ನಾಂಗ ಸಾಪಡಾಂಡ್ರಾಣೂಂ- nanga sāpaḍanḍrāṇūṃ
ಅವುಸಾಪಡಾಂಡ್ರಾಣು - avu sāpaḍāṇḍrāṇu ನೀಂಗ ಸಾಪಡಾಂಡ್ರಾಂಢ್ಯೊ- nīnga sāpaḍāṇḍrānḍhyo
ಅವೆ ಸಾಪಡಡ್ರಾಂಡ - ave sāpaḍāṇḍrānḍa ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಸಾಪಡಾಂಡ್ರಾಂಡ - avhāḷa sāpaḍāṇḍrānḍa

Past

The past tense in Sankethi is complex due to stem rules inherited from Tamil.[4] The past tense is also notable in that the ನೀಂಗ (nīnga) form is where Sankethi's uncommon aspirates are most visible. There a number of different kinds of past tense endings associated with certain verb endings. There are also a number of irregular verbs, with no necessarily discernible pattern.

ಪಣ್ಣು - -ಉ ending verbs

ನಾ ಪಣ್ಣಿನೆ - nā paṇṇine ಅದು ಪಣ್ಣಿತು - adu paṇṇitu
ನೀ ಪಣ್ಣಿನೆಯ -

nī paṇṇine/paṇṇinya (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ಪಣ್ಣಿನೊಂ - nanga paṇṇinoṃ
ಅವುಂ ಪಣ್ಣಿನಾ - avu paṇṇinā ನೀಂಗ ಪಣ್ಣಿನ್ಹ್ಯೊ - nīnga paṇṇinhyo
ಅವೆ ಪಣ್ಣಿನಾ - ave paṇṇinā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಪಣ್ಣಿನಾ - avhāḷa paṇṇinā

ಉಡು - -ಡು ending verbs without an stressed penultimate syllable (change to -ಟ್ಟ-)

ನಾ ಉಟ್ಟೆ - nā uṭṭe ಅದು ಉಟ್ಟದು - adu uṭṭadu
ನೀ ಉಟ್ಟೆಯ - nī uṭṭeya/uṭṭya (statement/question) ನಾಂಗ ಉಟ್ಟುಂ - nanga uṭṭuṃ
ಅವುಂ ಉಟ್ಟಾಂ - avu uṭṭāṃ ನೀಂಗ ಉಟ್ಠ್ಯೊ - nīnga uṭṭhyo
ಅವೆ ಉಟ್ಟಾ - ave uṭṭā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಉಟ್ಟಾ - avhāḷa uṭṭā

ಸಾಪಡು - -ಡು ending verbs with an unstressed penultimate syllable

ನಾ ಸಾಪಟೆ - nā sāpaṭe ಅದು ಸಾಪಟುದು - adu sāpaṭudu
ನೀ ಸಾಪಟೆಯ/ಸಾಪಟ್ಯ -

nī sāpaṭeya/sāpaṭya (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ಸಾಪಟುಂ - nanga sāpaṭuṃ
ಅವುಂ ಸಾಪಟಾಂ - avu sāpaṭāṃ ನೀಂಗ ಸಾಪಠ್ಯೊ - nīnga sāpaṭhyo
ಅವೆ ಸಾಪಟಾ - ave sāpaṭā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಸಾಪಟಾ - avhāḷa sāpaṭā

ಪಾರು - stressed long vowel as the penultimate syllable (change the final syllable to -ತು)

ನಾ ಪಾತೆ - nā pāte ಅದು ಪಾತದು - adu pātadu
ನೀ ಪಾತ್ಯ/ಪಾತೆಯ -

nī pātya/pāteya (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ಪಾತೊಂ - nanga pātoṃ
ಅವು ಪಾತಾಂ - avu pātāṃ ನೀಂಗ ಪಾಥ್ಯೊ - nīnga pāthyo
ಅವೆ ಪಾತಾ - ave pātā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಪಾತಾ - avhāḷa pātā

ಇಳಿ - -ಇ ending verbs

ನಾ ಇಳಿಂಜೆ - nā iḷiṃje ಅದು ಇಳಿಂಜುದು - adu iḷimjudu
ನೀ ಇಳಿಂಜೆಯ - nī iḷiṃjeya ನಾಂಗ ಇಳಿಂಜುಂ - nanga iḷimjuṃ
ಅವು ಇಳಿಂಜಾಂ - avu iḷiṃjāṃ ನೀಂಗ ಇಳಿಂಝ್ಯೊ - nīnga iḷiṃjhyo
ಅವೆ ಇಳಿಂಜಾ - ave iḷimjā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಇಳಿಂಜಾ - avhāḷa iḷiṃjā

ಉಳು (uḷu to fall) (also ಅಳಿ, ನಡಿ)

ನಾ ಉಳಂದೆ - nā uḷunde ಅದುಉಳುಂದದು- adu uḷuṃdadu
ನೀ ಉಳುಂದ್ಯ/ಉಳುಂದೆಯ - nī uḷuṃdya/uḷuṃdeya ನಾಂಗಉಳುಂದುಂ- nanga uḷumḍuṃ
ಅವು ಉಳುಂದಾಂ - avu uḷuṃdāṃ ನೀಂಗಉಳುಂಢ್ಯೊ- nīnga uḷuṃḍhyo
ಅವೆ ಉಳುಂದಾ - ave uḷuṃdā ಅವ್ಹಾಳಉಳುಂಡಾ - avhāḷa uḷuṃḍa

This is a special pattern unique to ನಿಲ್ಲಿ (nilli) and -ಕ್ಯೊ (-kyo) ending verbs (ex. ತುಂಕ್ಯೊ - tuṃkyo)

ನಾ ನಿಂಡೆ/ತುಂಕಿಂಡೆ - nā niṃḍe/tuṃkiṃḍe ಅದು ನಿಂಡದು/ತುಂಕಿಂಡದು - adu niṃḍadu/tuṃkiṃḍadu
ನೀ (ನಿಂಡ್ಯ/ತುಂಕಿಂಡ್ಯ)/(ನಿಂಡೆಯ/ತುಂಕಿಂಡೆಯ) -

nī (niṃḍya/tuṃkiṃḍya)/(niṃḍeya/tuṃkiṃḍeya)(statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ನಿಂಡುಂ/ತುಂಕಿಂಡುಂ - nanga niṃḍuṃ/tuṃkiṃḍuṃ
ಅವು ನಿಂಡಾಂ/ತುಂಕಿಂಡಾಂ - avu niṃḍāṃ/tuṃkiṃḍāṃ ನೀಂಗ ನಿಂಢ್ಯೊ/ತುಂಕಿಂಢ್ಯೊ - nīnga niṃḍhyo/tuṃkiṃḍhyo
ಅವೆ ನಿಂಡಾ/ತುಂಕಿಂಡಾ - ave niṃḍā/tuṃkiṃḍā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ನಿಂಡಾ/ತುಂಕಿಂಡಾ - avhāḷa niṃḍā/tuṃkiṃḍā

The following verbs are irregular:

ಕುಡು (to give)

ನಾ ಕುಡ್ತೆ - nā kuḍte ಅದು ಕುಡ್ತದು - adu kuḍtadu
ನೀ ಕುಡ್ತ್ಯ/ಕುಡ್ತೆಯ - nī kuḍtya/kuḍteya (statement/question) ನಾಂಗ ಕುಡ್ತೊಂ - nanga kuḍtoṃ
ಅವು ಕುಡ್ತಾಂ - avu kuḍtāṃ ನೀಂಗ ಕುಡ್ಥ್ಯೊ - nīnga kuḍthyo
ಅವೆ ಕುಡ್ತಾ - ave kuḍtā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಕುಡ್ತಾ - avhāḷa kuḍtā

ಪುಡಿ (to carry)

ನಾ ಪುಡಿಚೆ - nā puḍice ಅದು ಪುಡಿಚದು - adu puḍicā
ನೀ ಪುಡಿಚ್ಯ/ಪುಡಿಚೆಯ -

nī puḍicya/puḍiceya (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ಪುಡಿಚುಂ - nanga puḍicuṃ
ಅವು ಪುಡಿಚಾಂ - avu puḍicāṃ ನೀಂಗ ಪುಡಿಛ್ಯೊ - nīnga puḍichyo
ಅವೆ ಪುಡಿಚಾ - ave puḍicā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಪುಡಿಚಾ - avhāḷa puḍicā

ಚಿರಿ/ಉರಿ (to smile/peel) (add -ಚ- before adding endings)

ನಾ ಚಿರ್ಚೆ/ಉರ್ಚೆ - nā circe/urce ಅದು ಚಿರ್ಚದು/ಉರ್ಚದು - adu circadu/urcadu
ನೀ (ಚಿರ್ಚ್ಯ/ಚಿರ್ಚೆಯ)/(ಉರ್ಚ್ಯ/ಉರ್ಚೆಯ) -

nī (circya/circeya)/(urcya/urceya) (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ಚಿರ್ಚೊಂ/ಉರ್ಚೊಂ - nanga circoṃ/urcoṃ
ಅವು ಚಿರ್ಚಾಂ/ಉರ್ಚಾಂ - avu circāṃ/urcāṃ ನೀಂಗ ಚಿರ್ಛ್ಯೊ/ಉರ್ಛ್ಯೊ - nīnga circhyo/urchyo
ಅವೆ ಚಿರ್ಚಾ/ಉರ್ಚಾ- ave circā/urcā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಚಿರ್ಚಾ/ಉರ್ಚಾ - avhāḷa circā/urcā

ತೋಯಿ (to wash)

ನಾ ತೋಚೆ - nā toce ಅದು ತೋಚದು - adu tōcadu
ನೀ ತೋಚ್ಯ/ತೋಚೆಯ -

nī tōcya/tōceya (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ತೋಚುಂ - nanga tōcuṃ
ಅವು ತೋಚಾಂ - avu tōcāṃ ನೀಂಗ ತೋಛ್ಯೊ - nīnga tōchyo
ಅವೆ ತೋಚಾ - ave tōcāṃ ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ತೋಚಾ - avhāḷa tōcā

ವಯ್ಯಿ (to scold)

ನಾ ವಶ್ಶೆ - nā vaśśe ಅದು ವಶ್ಶದು - adu vaśśadu
ನೀ ವಶ್ಶ್ಯ/ವಶ್ಶೆಯ -

nī vaśśye/vaśśeya (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ವಶ್ಶುಂ - nanga vaśśuṃ
ಅವು ವಶ್ಶಾಂ - avu vaśśāṃ ನೀಂಗ ವಶ್ಶ್ಹ್ಯೊ - nīnga vaśśhyo
ಅವೆ ವಶ್ಶಾ - ave vaśśā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ವಶ್ಶಾ - avhāḷa vaśśā

ಇರು (to be)

ನಾ ಇಂದೆ - nā inde ಅದು ಇಂದದು - adu iṃdadu
ನೀ ಇರಂಡೆಯ - nī iraṃḍeya ನಾಂಗ ಇಂದ್ನೂಂ/ಇನ್ನೂಂ - nanga iṃdnūṃ/innuṃ
ಅವುಂ ಇನ್ನ - avu inna ನೀಂಗ ಇಂಢ್ಯೊ - nīnga iṃḍhyo
ಅವೆ ಇಂದ - ave iṃda ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಇಂದ - avhāḷa iṃda

ವರು (to come)

ನಾ ವಂದೆ - nā inde ಅದು ವಂದು - adu vaṃdadu
ನೀ ವಂದ್ಯ/ವಂದೆಯ - nī vaṃdya/vaṃdeya ನಾಂಗ ವನ್ನೂಂ - nanga vannuṃ
ಅವುಂ ವನ್ನ - avu vanna ನೀಂಗ ವಂಧ್ಯೊ - nīnga vaṃdhyo
ಅವೆ ವಂದ - ave vaṃda ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ವಂದ - avhāḷa vaṃda

ಪೋಹು (to go)

ನಾ ಪೋನೆ - nā pōne ಅದು ಪೋಚು - adu pōcu
ನೀ ಪೋನ್ಯ/ಪೋನೆಯ -

nī pōnya/pōneya

ನಾಂಗ ಪೋನ್ನುಂ - nanga pōnnuṃ
ಅವುಂ ಪೋನ್ನ - avu pōnna ನೀಂಗ ಪೋನ್ಹ್ಯೊ - nīnga ponhyo
ಅವೆ ಪೋನ - ave pōna ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಪೋನ - avhāḷa pōna

ಆಹು (to happen/become)

ನಾ ಆಯ್ರಾಣಿ - nā āyraṇi ಅದು ಆಚು - adu ācu
ನೀ ಆನಾ/ಆನೆಯ -

nī ānā/āneya (statement/question)

ನಾಂಗ ಆನುಂ - nanga ānuṃ
ಅವುಂ ಆನಾ - avu ānā ನೀಂಗ ಅನ್ಹ್ಯೊ - nīnga ānhyo
ಅವೆ ಆನಾ - ave ānā ಅವ್ಹಾಳ ಆನಾ - avhāḷa ānā

Past Perfect/Past Progressive or Remote Past

The past progressive and past perfect in Sankethi are the same, and their meaning is distinguished only by context. For this reason, the conjugations below may be referred to jointly as the remote past.

ನಾ ಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿಂದೆ- nā sāpaḍānninde ಅದುಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿಂದು - adu sāpaḍānnindu
ನೀಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿಂಡೆಯ- nī sāpaḍānninḍeya ನಾಂಗಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿನೂಂ - nanga sāpaḍānninūṃ
ಅವು ಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿನ- avu sāpaḍānninna ನೀಂಗಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿಂಢ್ಯೊ - nīnga sāpaḍānninḍhyō
ಅವೆಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿಂದ - ave sāpaḍānninda ಅವ್ಹಾಳಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿಂದ - avhāḷa sāpaḍānninda

Future

This is a hypothetical construction for the future tense in Sankethi, though it functions more like a hypothetical ("Shall I...?"). C.T. Dathathreya reconstructs this set of conjugations by referring to Tamil and Kannada conjugations for the future tense.[5] In a literary or poetic context, it would likely imply the future tense, and when appearing as an instruction, it has the jussive meaning of "must do" or the passive meaning "will be done". Dathathreya refers to this as the "future indefinite", suggesting a distant (hence very hypothetical) circumstance.

ನಾ ಸಾಪಡವೆ- nā sāpaḍave ಅದು ಸಾಪಮ್- adu sāpaḍum
ನೀಸಾಪಡವೆಯ- nī sāpaḍaveya ನಾಂಗಸಾಪಡವೊ(ಂ) - nanga sāpaḍavo(ṃ)
ಅವುಸಾಪಡವಾಂ- avu sāpāḍavāṃ ನೀಂಗಸಾಪಡವ್ಹ್ಯೊ - nīnga sāpaḍavhyo
ಅವೆಸಾಪಡವ - ave sāpaḍava ಅವ್ಹಾಳಸಾಪಡವ- avhāḷa sāpaḍava

Negation

Negation is indicated by suffixing the appropriate ending, and similar to Kannada, there are separate forms for each tense. Again, the example verb is ಸಾಪಡು (sāpaḍu). Some Sankethi speakers negate with the ending -ಅಲ್ಲೆ (alle) and others with -ಅಲ್ಲ (alla). It varies with the generation of the speakers and their proximity to Tamil or Kannada communities. The negative future is a hypothetical construction based on C.T. Dathathreya's reconstruction.[citation needed]

Present: ಸಾಪಡಲ್ಲ (sāpaḍalla)

Present Progressive: ಸಾಪಡರಾಂಡಿಕ್ಕಲ್ಲ (sāpaḍarāṃḍikkalla)

Past/Present Perfect: ಸಾಪಡಿಕ್ಕಲ್ಲ (sāpaḍikkalla)

Past Progressive: ಸಾಪಡಾನ್ನಿಂದಲ್ಲ (sāpaḍānnindalla)

Future: ಸಪಡವಿಲ್ಲ (sāpaḍavilla)

Imperative

Low (male) ಪಣ್ಡೋ (paṇḍō)
Low (female) ಪಣ್ಡೇ (paṇḍē)
Standard ಪಣ್ಣು (paṇṇu)
Polite ಪಣ್ಣಂಗೊ (paṇṇango)
Optative ಪಣ್ಣಿಡು (paṇṇiḍu)
Hortative ಪಣ್ದಮೊ (paṇdamo)

Prohibitive

Dismissive/Insistent/Low “don’t” ಪಣ್ಣವಾನಕಡೋ (paṇṇavānakaḍō)
Non-polite “don’t” ಪಣ್ಣವಾಣ (paṇṇavāṇa)
Polite “please don’t” ಪಣ್ಣವಾಣಂಗೊ (paṇṇavāṇango)
Recommending “shouldn’t” ಪಣ್ಣಕಾಹದು (paṇṇakāhadu)
Forbidding “mustn’t” ಪಣ್ಣಕುಡಾದು (paṇṇakuḍādu)

See also

References

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sanketi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. http://www.sankethi.org/Culture/History/SankethiSaga.html
  3. Tamil at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  4. Nagaraja, K.S. (1982). "TENSE IN SANKETI TAMIL - A COMPARATIVE NOTE". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. Vol. 41: 126–129. JSTOR 42931419.
  5. Dathathreya, C. T., Sankethi Bhasha Swabodhini.
  1. Dr.Shrikaanth K.Murthy- Article in Sanketi Sangama, February 2006 (Published from Shimoga)
  2. Dravidabhashavijnana by Hampa Nagarajaiah (Published by D.V.K.Murthy publishers, Mysore, India)
  3. Sanketi jananga, samskruti mattu bhashe- C.S.Ramachandarao (Published by Chaitra Pallavi Publishers, Mysore)
  4. Nacharammana Jivana Carite- M. Keshaviah (published from Mysore)
  5. Shreyash S -Article in Sanketi Sangama [Published by Chaitra Pallavi Publishers, Bangalore]
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