2019 Boeing 737 Max Groundings

In March 2019, the new Boeing 737 MAX passenger airliner was grounded by aviation authorities and airlines worldwide after two crashes of the aircraft which killed 346 people. Only seventeen months after the aircraft entered service, Lion Air Flight 610, a 737 MAX 8, crashed into the Java Sea twelve minutes after takeoff on October 29, 2018, killing all 189 passengers and crew. On March 10, 2019, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, another 737 MAX 8, crashed six minutes after takeoff, killing all 157 passengers and crew.

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2019 Boeing 737 MAX groundings
Map of countries which have grounded or banned the 737 MAX aircraft.
Legend:
     Grounded or banned from airspace by government regulator
     Voluntarily grounded by all operating airlines
DateMarch 11, 2019 (2019-03-11) — ongoing (6 days)
CauseTwo hull losses and 346 fatalities within five months (Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 and Lion Air Flight 610)

In March 2019, the new Boeing 737 MAX passenger airliner was grounded by aviation authorities and airlines worldwide after two crashes of the aircraft which killed 346 people. Only seventeen months after the aircraft entered service, Lion Air Flight 610, a 737 MAX 8, crashed into the Java Sea twelve minutes after takeoff on October 29, 2018, killing all 189 passengers and crew. On March 10, 2019, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, another 737 MAX 8, crashed six minutes after takeoff, killing all 157 passengers and crew.

Both aircraft rapidly dived soon after takeoff, and the Federal Aviation Administration and Transport Canada Civil Aviation stated that satellite tracking data showed a similarity between the two accidents; the FAA said a "possibility of a shared cause" existed.[1] Attention focused on possible problems with a new flight control system on the 737 MAX.

Ethiopian Airlines suspended its 737 MAX 8 fleet the day after its airplane crashed. China became the second country to ground its 737 MAX 8 aircraft on March 11, with Indonesia, Mongolia, Singapore and other countries rapidly following suit, either voluntarily or by order of local aviation regulatory authorities.[2][3]

In the US, the FAA initially declined to ground the aircraft against substantial pressure, then announced on March 13 that it would do so,[4] leaving only Panama still flying the planes, until its aviation authority became the last to ground their fleet, leaving all Boeing 737 MAX series airplanes grounded worldwide. Several countries without the 737 MAX fleet banned the aircraft from entering their airspace.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Background

737 MAX design

The CFM International LEAP engines of the 737 MAX are placed higher and further forward in relation to the wing than on previous 737s, destabilizing the aircraft pitch at high angles of attack (AoA). Boeing designed a Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) to compensate. If the 737 MAX aircraft's nose pitches up higher than usual, potentially leading to a stall, the MCAS senses the excess lift and automatically lowers the aircraft's nose to avoid the stall.[12] If the AoA sensors malfunction, the MCAS may initiate a sudden dive, for which the crew may be unprepared. The single point of failure nature of this feature is considered a potential design flaw without adequate crew preparation. The United States Federal Aviation Administration was evaluating remediation for the possible flaw and investigating better pilots' transition training.[13]

Lion Air Flight 610 crash

PK-LQP, the aircraft involved in the crash of Flight 610

On October 29, 2018, Lion Air Flight 610, a scheduled domestic flight operated by the Indonesian airline Lion Air from Soekarno–Hatta International Airport in Jakarta to Depati Amir Airport in Pangkal Pinang, crashed into the Java Sea 12 minutes after takeoff. All 189 passengers and crew were killed in the accident.[14][15][16][17]

The preliminary report tentatively attributed the accident to the erroneous AoA data and automatic nose-down trim commanded by MCAS.[18][8]

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crash

ET-AVJ, the aircraft involved in the crash of Flight 302

On March 10, 2019, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, a scheduled international passenger flight operated by Ethiopian Airlines from Addis Ababa in Ethiopia to Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya, crashed six minutes after takeoff near Bishoftu, killing all 157 passengers and crew aboard the aircraft.[19][20][20][21][22] It is the deadliest aircraft accident to occur in Ethiopia, superseding the crash of an Ethiopian Air Force Antonov An-26 in 1982, which killed 73.

Initial reports indicated that the Flight 302 pilot struggled to control the airplane in a manner similar to circumstances of the Lion Air crash.[23] Investigators at the crash scene found evidence that an airplane control surface was positioned to make the aircraft nose pitch down, as apparently happened in the Lion Air crash. Experts suggested this evidence further pointed to MCAS as at fault in the crash.[24][25]

Pilot complaints

In addition to the crashes in Indonesia and Ethiopia, Boeing 737 MAX pilots in the United States registered several complaints about the way the jet performed in flight, including reports that pilots in the United States may have experienced similar issues to what happened in the Lion Air crash.[26]

Response

Timeline of regulatory responses

March 11

March 12

  • Singapore: the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore, "temporarily suspends" operation of all variants of the 737 MAX aircraft into and out of Singapore.[32]
  • Australia: The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) announced a "temporary suspension"[33] of all 737 MAX aircraft in Australia or flying to Australia.
  • European Union: The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) suspended all flight operations of all 737 MAX 8 and 9 aircraft in the EU.[34]
  • Oman: Oman's Public Authority for Civil Aviation said in a statement it "is temporarily suspending operations of 737 MAX aircraft into and out of all Omani airports until further notice."[35]
  • United Kingdom: the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) banned 737 MAX aircraft from operating in UK's airspace.[36]
  • India: Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) released a statement "DGCA has taken the decision to ground the 737 MAX aircraft immediately, pursuant to new inspections.[37]
  • Turkey: Turkish Civil Aviation Authority suspended flights of 737 MAX 8 and 9 type aircraft being operated by Turkish companies in Turkey, and stated that they are also reviewing the possibility of closing the country's airspace for the same.[38]
  • UAE: General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) banned the operation of all 737 MAX models in the UAE airspace.[39]
  • Malaysia: The Civil Aviation Authority of Malaysia suspended all 737 MAX flying operations from and to Malaysia, including transiting flights.[40]
  • United States: The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued an affirmation of the continued airworthiness of the 737 MAX; major United States-based 737 MAX operators Southwest Airlines and American Airlines also expressed confidence.[41]
  • Canada: Minister of Transport Marc Garneau said it was premature to consider groundings and that, "If I had to fly somewhere on that type of aircraft today, I would."[42]

March 13

  • Canada: Minister of Transport Marc Garneau, prompted by receipt of new information,[43] said "There can't be any MAX 8 or MAX 9 flying into, out of or across Canada", effectively grounding all 737 MAX aircraft in Canadian airspace.[44]
  • Egypt: The Egyptian Ministry of Civil Aviation barred the passage, takeoff and landing of 737 MAX aircraft.[45]
  • United States: President Donald Trump announced on March 13, that United States authorities would ground all 737 MAX 8 and 9 aircraft in the United States.[46][47] After the President's announcement, the FAA officially ordered the grounding of all 737 MAX 8 and 9 operated by U.S. airlines or in the United States airspace.[48]
  • Vietnam: Civil Aviation Administration of Vietnam banned 737 MAX 8 flights in its airspace until further notice. Vietnam operates no 737 MAX aircraft, and at the point of the issuing, all carriers operating 737 MAX aircraft for services to Vietnam had already grounded the model.[49]
  • Panama: The Civil Aviation Authority grounded its aircraft.[5][6][7]
  • North Macedonia: The Civil Aviation Agency of North Macedonia banned 737 MAX aircraft from operating in North Macedonia's airspace.[50]

March 14

Effect on flights

About 30 of the 737 MAX aircraft were flying in US airspace when the FAA grounding order was announced. The airplanes were allowed to continue to their destinations and were then grounded.[56] In Europe, two Turkish Airlines MAX aircraft were flying to Britain, one to Gatwick Airport south of London and the other to Birmingham, when grounding orders were issued. The airplanes turned around without landing and flew back to Turkey.[57] Relocating aircraft grounded in the US to a service facility can be performed under an FAA special flight permit,[58] also known as a "ferry" permit, and flights might be subject to certain restrictions, the most obvious being no passengers, but may also require additional pre-flight inspection.[59]

Boeing response

In its first public statement after the second crash, the company said: "Boeing is deeply saddened to learn of the passing of the passengers and crew on Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, a 737 MAX 8 airplane. We extend our heartfelt sympathies to the families and loved ones of the passengers and crew on board and stand ready to support the Ethiopian Airlines team. A Boeing technical team will be traveling to the crash site to provide technical assistance under the direction of the Ethiopia Accident Investigation Bureau and United States National Transportation Safety Board."[60]

Subsequently, in response to the grounding of the 737 MAX by non-US countries and airlines, Boeing stated: "We have engaged our customers and regulators on concerns they may have — and would refer you to them to discuss their operations and decisions. Safety is our number one priority and we are taking every measure to fully understand all aspects of this accident, working closely with the investigating team and all regulatory authorities involved. The investigation is in its early stages, but at this point, based on the information available, we do not have any basis to issue new guidance to operators."[61]

On March 11, Boeing announced that it had been working on upgrades to the MCAS flight control software, cockpit displays, operation manuals and crew training. Boeing said the upgrades were partly in response to the Lion Air crash, but not linked to the Ethiopian Airlines crash, and were to be deployed in coming weeks and to be made mandatory by an FAA Airworthiness Directive.[62] The FAA stated it anticipated clearing the software update by March 25, 2019, allowing Boeing to distribute it to the grounded fleets.[63]

On March 13, in response to the FAA grounding the MAX aircraft, Boeing released another statement: "Boeing continues to have full confidence in the safety of the 737 MAX. However, after consultation with the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and aviation authorities and its customers around the world, Boeing has determined — out of an abundance of caution and in order to reassure the flying public of the aircraft's safety — to recommend to the FAA the temporary suspension of operations of the entire global fleet of 371 737 MAX aircraft."[64]

On March 14, Boeing confirmed continued production of the 737 MAX series aircraft but halting deliveries to its customers.[65]

Political response

Following a tweet on March 12 from United States President Donald Trump that "Airplanes are becoming far too complex to fly. Pilots are no longer needed, but rather computer scientists from MIT. I see it all the time in many products. Always seeking to go one unnecessary step further, when often old and simpler is far better."[66] Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg spoke with and provided assurances to Trump that the aircraft was safe.[67][68]

On March 13, with mounting pressure following the grounding of the aircraft by Canada's transportation,[47] Trump met Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao, Acting Administrator of the FAA Daniel Elwell, and Muilenburg and agreed to ground the aircraft. "The FAA is preparing to make an announcement very shortly regarding the new information and physical evidence that we've received from the Ethiopia crash site and from other locations and through a couple of other complaints," Trump announced.[69][4]

The government has faced questions about the lack of a permanent administrator at the FAA since January 2018, two years of staff and budget cuts at the agency, and the recent government shutdown that delayed approval of a software upgrade for the 737 MAX after the Lion Air crash. The FAA responded that it is "under the strong leadership" of its acting head,[70] and Elwell said the shutdown "did not cause any delay in work on the software."[71] The 737 MAX controversy shed more light on Boeing's political influence in Washington, including lobbying efforts, donations to lawmakers and ties between government and industry.[72][73][74]

United States Senators Elizabeth Warren, Mitt Romney, Dianne Feinstein, Ted Cruz, Roger Wicker and Richard Blumenthal called for the FAA to temporarily ground all 737 MAX 8 jets.[75][76][77] Ted Cruz and Roger Wicker announced their plans to hold a hearing at the United States Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security "to investigate these crashes, determine their contributing factors, and ensure that the United States aviation industry remains the safest in the world."[77] Elizabeth Warren accused the Trump administration of protecting Boeing, saying: "The Boeing 737 MAX 8 is a major driver of Boeing profits. In the coming weeks and months, Congress should hold hearings on whether an administration that famously refused to stand up to Saudi Arabia to protect Boeing arms sales has once again put lives at risk for the same reason."[78]

United States Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao, who has the authority to suspend the 737 MAX 8, said that "If the FAA identifies an issue that affects safety, the department will take immediate and appropriate action."[76] On March 12, Chao with her staff flew on a Southwest Airlines 737 MAX 8 from Austin, Texas, to Washington, D.C., in an apparent act of support of the Boeing Company.[79]

On March 13, Canadian Transport Minister Marc Garneau reversed his decision not to ground the aircraft and banned all 737 MAX 8/9 aircraft from Canadian airspace.[80] He earlier had said he would board 737 MAX 8 "without hesitation",[81] and on March 12 had said that Trudeau's government had no plans to ground the 737 MAX 8.[82] The Canadian Union of Public Employees had called on Air Canada "to at a minimum continue to offer reassignment to crew members who do not want to fly on this type of airplane. The safety of passengers and crews must be the absolute priority."[82]

Groundings by countries/regions and airlines

Countries / Regions

As a result of the Flight 302 accident, aviation authorities and airlines began grounding the Boeing 737 MAX due to safety concerns.[83] The list below is as of March 14, 2019 (sorted by country/region):

Authority Date
(2019)
Comments
Civil Aviation Authority (Albania) Albania March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[84]
National Civil Aviation Administration (Argentina) Argentina March 12 Grounded all 737 MAX in the country.[85]
Civil Aviation Committee (Armenia) Armenia March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[86]
Civil Aviation Safety Authority (Australia) Australia March 12 Grounded all 737 MAX in the country.[87]
Ministry of Transport (Austria) Austria March 12 Grounded all 737 MAX in the country.[88]
Civil Aviation Authority, Bangladesh Bangladesh March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[89]
Department for Aviation (Belarus) Belarus March 14 737 MAX banned from airspace.[90]
Federal Public Service Mobility and Transport (Belgium) Belgium March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[91]
Bermuda Civil Aviation Authority Bermuda March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[92]
Directorate of Civil Aviation (Bosnia and Herzegovina) Bosnia and Herzegovina March 14 737 MAX banned from airspace.[93]
National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil Brazil March 13 Grounded the 737 MAX-8 in the country.[94]
Department of Civil Aviation of Brunei Brunei March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[95]
Civil Aviation Administration (Bulgaria) Bulgaria March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[96]
Transport Canada Canada March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[80]
Civil Aviation Authority of the Cayman Islands Cayman Islands March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[97]
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (Chile) Chile March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[98]
Civil Aviation Administration of China China March 11 Grounded all 737 MAX in the country.[27][28][99]
Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics (Colombia) Colombia March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[100]
Dirección General de Aviación Civil (Costa Rica) Costa Rica March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[101]
Department of Civil Aviation (Cyprus) Cyprus March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[102]
Danish Transport Authority Denmark March 13 Grounded all 737 MAX in the country.[103]
Ministry of Civil Aviation (Egypt) Egypt March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[45]
Ethiopian Civil Aviation Authority (Ethiopia) Ethiopia March 14 737 MAX banned from airspace.[52]
European Aviation Safety Agency European Union March 12 737 MAX aircraft banned from airspace.[104][105][106] This covers the European Union and the member countries of EFTA.
Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji Fiji March 12 Operation of 737 MAX suspended.[107]
Directorate General for Civil Aviation (France) France March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[108]
Civil Aviation Authority (Georgia) Georgia (country) March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[109]
Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (Germany) Germany March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[110]
Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority (Greece) Greece March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[111]
Civil Aviation Department (Hong Kong) Hong Kong March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[112]
Ministry of Civil Aviation (India) India March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[113]
Ministry of Transportation (Indonesia) Indonesia March 11 Operation of 737 MAX suspended pending investigation.[29]
Iran Civil Aviation Organization Iran March 15 737 MAX banned from airspace.[114]
Iraq Civil Aviation Authority Iraq March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[115]
Irish Aviation Authority Republic of Ireland March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[116]
Civil Aviation Authority of Israel Israel March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[117]
Italian Civil Aviation Authority Italy March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[105]
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (Japan) Japan March 14 B737 MAX flights to Japan banned.[54]
Civil Aviation Committee (Kazakhstan) Kazakhstan March 14 737 MAX flights suspended.[118]
Civil Aviation Authority of Kosovo Kosovo March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[119]
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (Kuwait) Kuwait March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[120]
Lebanese Civil Aviation Authority Lebanon March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[121]
Civil Aviation Authority (Macau) Macau March 13 Operation of 737 MAX suspended.[122]
Civil Aviation Agency (Macedonia) Republic of Macedonia March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[123]
Civil Aviation Authority of Malaysia Malaysia March 12 Operation of 737 MAX suspended.[124]
Directorate General of Civil Aeronautics (Mexico) Mexico March 14 737 MAX banned from airspace.[125]
Civil Aviation Authority (Moldova) Moldova March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[126]
Civil Aviation Agency (Montenegro) Montenegro March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[127]
Namibia Civil Aviation Authority Namibia March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[128]
Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (Netherlands) Netherlands March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[129][106]
Civil Aviation Authority of New Zealand New Zealand March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[130]
Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority Nigeria March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[131]
Directorate General of Civil Aviation and Meteorology (Oman) Oman March 12 Operation of 737 MAX suspended.[132]
Civil Aviation Authority (Poland) Poland March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[133]
National Institute of Civil Aviation of Portugal Portugal March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[134]
Romanian Civil Aeronautical Authority Romania March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[135]
Federal Air Transport Agency (Russia) Russia March 14 737 MAX banned from airspace.[53]
Civil Aviation Directorate of the Republic of Serbia Serbia March 14 737 MAX banned from airspace.[136]
Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore Singapore March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[32]
Civil Aeronautics Administration (Taiwan) Taiwan March 14 737 MAX banned from airspace.[137][55]
Civil Aviation Authority of Thailand Thailand March 13 Operation of 737 MAX suspended.[138]
Trinidad and Tobago Civil Aviation Authority Trinidad and Tobago March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[139]
Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure (Turkey) Turkey March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[140]
State Aviation Administration of Ukraine Ukraine March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[141]
Civil Aviation Authority (United Kingdom) United Kingdom March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[142][143]
Federal Aviation Administration (United States) United States March 13 737 MAX banned from airspace.[144][145]
Civil Aviation Administration of Vietnam Vietnam March 12 737 MAX banned from airspace.[146][147]

Airlines

Within hours of the Ethiopian Air crash, airlines voluntarily ordered groundings of 380 Boeing 737 MAX 8 and Max 9 aircraft in their fleets (ordered by name).

Airline Date Fleet size Remarks
9 Air March 12 1
Aerolíneas Argentinas March 11 5 [148][149]
Aeroméxico March 12 6 [150]
Air Canada March 13 24
Air China March 11 15
Air Italy March 12 3
American Airlines March 13 24
Boeing March 13 1 Owned N8703J
Boeing Business Jet March 13 1 BBJ N329BJ
Cayman Airways March 11 2 [151]
China Eastern Airlines March 11 3
China Southern Airlines March 11 24
Comair March 11 1 [152]
Copa Airlines March 13 6 All MAX 9 aircraft[153][6][7]
Corendon Airlines March 12 1
Eastar Jet March 11 2
Enter Air March 12 2
Ethiopian Airlines March 11 4 [154][155]
Fiji Airways March 12 2
Flydubai March 12 14 Includes 3 MAX 9 aircraft[156]
Fuzhou Airlines March 11 2
Garuda Indonesia March 11 1
Gol Transportes Aéreos March 11 7 [157][158]
Hainan Airlines March 11 11
Icelandair March 12 6 Includes 1 MAX 9 Aircraft[159]
Jet Airways March 12 8 [160]
Kunming Airlines March 11 2
Lion Air March 11 10
LOT Polish Airlines March 12 5 [161]
Lucky Air March 11 3
Mauritania Airlines March 12 1 [162]
MIAT Mongolian Airlines March 11 1 [163]
Norwegian Air International March 12 9 [164]
Norwegian Air Shuttle March 12 6
Norwegian Air Sweden March 12 3
Okay Airways March 11 2
Oman Air March 15 5 [165]
Private Unknown 1 BBJ VP-CMA
Royal Air Maroc March 11 2 [166]
S7 Airlines March 12 2 [167]
SCAT Airlines March 13 1
Shandong Airlines March 11 7
Shanghai Airlines March 11 11
Shenzhen Airlines March 11 5
SilkAir March 12 6
Smartwings March 12 7
Southwest Airlines March 13 34
SpiceJet March 13 13 [168]
Sunwing Airlines March 12 4 [169]
Thai Lion Air March 13 3 All MAX 9 aircraft
TUI Airways March 12 6 [129]
TUI fly Belgium March 12 4
TUI fly Netherlands March 12 3
TUI fly Nordic March 12 2
Turkish Airlines March 12 12 Includes 1 MAX 9 aircraft[38]
United Airlines March 13 14 All MAX 9 aircraft
WestJet March 13 13
XiamenAir March 11 10
Total 380 Not including private planes

Financial impact

Airline demands for compensation

On March 13, Norwegian Air became the first airline publicly demanding compensation from Boeing for the costs of the groundings of the 737 MAX. CEO Bjørn Kjos said, "It is quite obvious we will not take the cost related to the new aircraft that we have to park temporarily, we will send this bill to those who produce this aircraft."[170] India's SpiceJet also announced that they will seek compensation from Boeing. A senior official said, "We will seek compensation from Boeing for the grounding of the aircraft. We will also seek recompense for revenue loss and any kind of maintenance or technical overhaul that the aircraft will have to undergo. This is part of the contract, which we signed with Boeing for all the 737 MAX aircraft".[171]

Order cancellations

On March 14, Indonesian flag carrier Garuda Indonesia announced cancellation of 49 orders for the Boeing 737 Max 8, citing "concerns on the safety of passengers".[172] Bloomberg News reported that Lion Air plans to drop a $22 billion order with Boeing in favor of Airbus aircraft[173] and that the 737 Max's problems put $600 billion in orders at risk.[174] Boeing suspended deliveries of 737 MAX aircraft to customers, but did not halt production of the aircraft. Analysts estimated that each month of the grounding could result in a delay of $1.8 billion in revenue to the company.[175] Boeing shares lost 11% of their value in the week leading up to March 14.[174]

See also

References

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