1880 United States Census

The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census. It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators. The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census in which a city – New York – recorded a population of over one million. Five schedules were authorized by the 1880 Census Act, four of which were filled out by the enumerators: Schedule 4 (Social statistics) was the responsibility of experts and special agents, rather than the enumerators. The majority of the data came from correspondence with officials of institutions providing care and treatment of certain members of the population. Experts and special agents also were employed to collect data on valuation, taxation, and indebtedness; religion and libraries; colleges, academies, and schools; newspapers and periodicals, and wages.

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1880 United States Census
 1870
1890 
Thomas Edison in the 1880 US census
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJune 1880 (1880-06)
Total population50,189,209
Percent changeIncrease 30.2%

The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census.[1] It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators.[2] The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker.[3] This was the first census in which a city – New York – recorded a population of over one million.

Data collected

Five schedules were authorized by the 1880 Census Act, four of which were filled out by the enumerators:[4]

  • Schedule 1 (Population), which was similar to that used for the previous census, with a few exceptions.[5]
  • Schedule 2 (Mortality), which used the same inquiries as in 1870, and added inquiries to record marital status, birthplace of parents, length of residence in the United States or territory, and name of place where the disease was contracted, if other than place of death.
  • Schedule 3 (Agriculture), which greatly expanded inquiries concerning various crops (including acreage for principal crop), and included questions on farm tenure, weeks of hired labor, annual cost for fence building and repair, fertilizer purchases, and the number of livestock.
  • Schedule 5 (Manufacturing), which expanded to include information on the greatest number of hands employed at any time during the year, the number of hours in the ordinary work day from May to November and November to May, the average daily wages paid to skilled mechanics and laborers, months of full-and part-time operation, and machinery used.

Schedule 4 (Social statistics) was the responsibility of experts and special agents, rather than the enumerators.[4] The majority of the data came from correspondence with officials of institutions providing care and treatment of certain members of the population. Experts and special agents also were employed to collect data on valuation, taxation, and indebtedness; religion and libraries; colleges, academies, and schools; newspapers and periodicals, and wages.[4]

Special agents were also charged with collecting data on specific industries throughout the country, and included the manufactures of iron and steel; cotton, woolen, and worsted goods; silk and silk goods; chemical products and salt; coke and glass; shipbuilding; and all aspects of fisheries and mining, including the production of coal and petroleum.[4]

Full documentation for the 1880 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, which contains microdata.

Data availability

The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau; after which the original sheets were transferred to various state archives, libraries, or universities.[6] The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations also host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.

Microdata from the 1880 population census are freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

Results

The 1880 census determined the resident population of the United States to be 50,189,209, an increase of 30.2 percent over the 38,555,983 persons enumerated during the 1870 Census.[7] The mean center of United States population for 1880 was in Boone County, Kentucky.

The results from the census were used to determine the apportionment for the 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, and 52nd sessions of the United States Congress.

The processing of the 1880 census data took so long (eight years) that the Census Bureau contracted Herman Hollerith to design and build a tabulating machine to be used for the next census.[8][9] The 1880 census also led to the discovery of the Alabama paradox.

State rankings

RankStatePopulation
01New York5,082,871
02Pennsylvania4,282,891
03Ohio3,198,062
04Illinois3,077,871
05Missouri2,168,380
06Indiana1,978,301
07Massachusetts1,783,085
08Kentucky1,648,690
09Michigan1,636,937
10Iowa1,624,615
11Texas1,591,749
12Tennessee1,542,359
13Georgia1,542,180
14Virginia1,512,565
15North Carolina1,399,750
16Wisconsin1,315,497
17Alabama1,262,505
18Mississippi1,131,597
19New Jersey1,131,116
20Kansas996,096
21South Carolina995,577
22Louisiana939,946
23Maryland934,943
24California864,694
25Arkansas802,525
26Minnesota780,773
27Maine648,936
28Connecticut622,700
29West Virginia618,457
30Nebraska452,402
31New Hampshire346,991
32Vermont332,286
33Rhode Island276,531
34Florida269,493
35Colorado194,327
XDistrict of Columbia [10]177,624
36Oregon174,768
37Delaware146,608
XUtah143,963
XNew Mexico119,565
XSouth Dakota98,268
XWashington75,116
38Nevada62,266
XArizona40,440
XMontana39,159
XNorth Dakota36,909
XIdaho32,610
XWyoming20,789

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation[11]Region (2016)[12]
01New YorkNew York1,206,299Northeast
02PhiladelphiaPennsylvania847,170Northeast
03BrooklynNew York566,663Northeast
04ChicagoIllinois503,185Midwest
05BostonMassachusetts362,839Northeast
06St. LouisMissouri350,518Midwest
07BaltimoreMaryland332,313South
08CincinnatiOhio255,139Midwest
09San FranciscoCalifornia233,959West
10New OrleansLouisiana216,090South
11ClevelandOhio160,146Midwest
12PittsburghPennsylvania156,389Northeast
13BuffaloNew York155,134Northeast
14WashingtonDistrict of Columbia147,293South
15NewarkNew Jersey136,508Northeast
16LouisvilleKentucky123,758South
17Jersey CityNew Jersey120,722Northeast
18DetroitMichigan116,340Midwest
19MilwaukeeWisconsin115,587Midwest
20ProvidenceRhode Island104,857Northeast
21AlbanyNew York90,758Northeast
22RochesterNew York89,366Northeast
23AlleghenyPennsylvania78,682Northeast
24IndianapolisIndiana75,056Midwest
25RichmondVirginia63,600South
26New HavenConnecticut62,882Northeast
27LowellMassachusetts59,475Northeast
28WorcesterMassachusetts58,291Northeast
29TroyNew York56,747Northeast
30Kansas CityMissouri55,785Midwest
31CambridgeMassachusetts52,669Northeast
32SyracuseNew York51,792Northeast
33ColumbusOhio51,647Midwest
34PatersonNew Jersey51,031Northeast
35ToledoOhio50,137Midwest
36CharlestonSouth Carolina49,984South
37Fall RiverMassachusetts48,961Northeast
38MinneapolisMinnesota46,887Midwest
39ScrantonPennsylvania45,850Northeast
40NashvilleTennessee43,350South
41ReadingPennsylvania43,278Northeast
42WilmingtonDelaware42,478South
43HartfordConnecticut42,015Northeast
44CamdenNew Jersey41,659Northeast
45Saint PaulMinnesota41,473Midwest
46LawrenceMassachusetts39,151Northeast
47DaytonOhio38,678Midwest
48LynnMassachusetts38,274Northeast
49AtlantaGeorgia37,409South
50DenverColorado35,629West
51OaklandCalifornia34,555West
52UticaNew York33,914Northeast
53PortlandMaine33,810Northeast
54MemphisTennessee33,592South
55SpringfieldMassachusetts33,340Northeast
56ManchesterNew Hampshire32,630Northeast
57St. JosephMissouri32,431Midwest
58Grand RapidsMichigan32,016Midwest
59HobokenNew Jersey30,999Northeast
60HarrisburgPennsylvania30,762Northeast
61WheelingWest Virginia30,737South
62SavannahGeorgia30,709South
63OmahaNebraska30,518Midwest
64TrentonNew Jersey29,910Northeast
65CovingtonKentucky29,720South
66EvansvilleIndiana29,280Midwest
67PeoriaIllinois29,259Midwest
68MobileAlabama29,132South
69ElizabethNew Jersey28,229Northeast
70EriePennsylvania27,737Northeast
71BridgeportConnecticut27,643Northeast
72SalemMassachusetts27,563Northeast
73QuincyIllinois27,268Midwest
74Fort WayneIndiana26,880Midwest
75New BedfordMassachusetts26,845Northeast
76Terre HauteIndiana26,042Midwest
77LancasterPennsylvania25,769Northeast
78SomervilleMassachusetts24,933Northeast
79Wilkes-BarrePennsylvania23,339Northeast
80Des MoinesIowa22,408Midwest
81DubuqueIowa22,254Midwest
82GalvestonTexas22,248South
83NorfolkVirginia21,966South
84AuburnNew York21,924Northeast
85HolyokeMassachusetts21,915Northeast
86AugustaGeorgia21,891South
87DavenportIowa21,831Midwest
88ChelseaMassachusetts21,782Northeast
89PetersburgVirginia21,656South
90SacramentoCalifornia21,420West
91TauntonMassachusetts21,213Northeast
92OswegoNew York21,116Northeast
93Salt Lake CityUtah20,768West
94SpringfieldOhio20,730Midwest
95Bay CityMichigan20,693Midwest
96San AntonioTexas20,550South
97ElmiraNew York20,541Northeast
98NewportKentucky20,433South
99PoughkeepsieNew York20,207Northeast
100SpringfieldIllinois19,743Midwest

See also

References

  1. 1880 Census: Instructions to Enumerators from IPUMS, a website of the Minnesota Population Center at the University of Minnesota
  2. From Inkwell To Internet: 1880 from the U.S. Census Bureau
  3. Billings, John S. (1902). "Biographical Memoir of Francis Amasa Walker 1840–1897" (PDF). National Academy Press. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
  4. 1 2 3 4 1880 Census of Population and Housing from the U.S. Census Bureau
  5. Scanned images of Schedule 1 (both low-resolution and high-resolution) are available from Historical Forms and Questions: 1880 at the U.S. Census Bureau website
  6. Algonquin Area Public Library District. "Census Secrets" (PDF). Retrieved May 17, 2012.[permanent dead link]
  7. Resident Population of the United States from a State of Wyoming website
  8. Anderson, Margo J. (2015). The American Census, A Social History, 2nd ed. Yale. p. 102. "The final volumes of the 1880 census were published in 1888" thus 1880,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 -- eight years at least
  9. Tabulating machines from an Early Office Museum website
  10. The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790.
  11. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  12. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
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