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virginialucas´s article

IP address

Category: Computers
Submitted by virginialucas
30 day(s) ago (Server time: 28.09.2020 14:56:44)

An IP address (or Internet Protocol Address) is a unique identifier for a device on a WAN or LAN. It is built on top of the TCP / IP protocol and allows computers to "communicate" with each other.

Each device has its own individual Internet Protocol address. To find out the IP address on the Internet (external), you must use third-party online services. For example, the site https://ip-locations.org/. It is assigned when you connect to a particular network. For example, when connected to the Internet, a device is assigned a unique identification number, which can be used to communicate with other devices on the same network.

In simpler and more understandable language, the IP address on the network is analogous to a geographical address in life (city, street, house). In order for two people to be able to send parcels and letters to each other, their houses must be assigned real addresses (for example, 7760 N. Stillwater Circle Clover, SC 29710). In the same way, for two computers to be able to communicate with each other, each of them must have its own IP address. Otherwise, they simply won't be able to contact.

Types of IP addresses

All protocol addresses can be divided into two groups:
  1. Internal ("gray" refers to local networks).
  2. External ("white" - refer to global networks).

In the first case, the IP address is available only to network participants. This could be, for example, a group of work computers. They can easily interact with each other using the internal IP, but cannot interact with computers outside this network.

In the second case, the IP is assigned when connecting to the global Internet. It is public and available to everyone. It is similar to the previous species, only its zone of influence is much larger - this is the World Wide Web.

All Internet protocol addresses are divided into two more types:

  1. Static.
  2. Dynamic.

The first are immutable (permanent) addresses. They do not change even when the computer restarts or goes offline. These IPs are assigned either by the users themselves in the device settings, or automatically upon connection. They are used for more secure data transmission, in solving problems related to information technology, to gain access to some services, etc.

The second are mutable (non-persistent) addresses. They are given for a time (from the beginning to the end of the session). With each new connection, the device will automatically be assigned a new one. In this case, the old one can get to another network participant. Tracking a computer with a dynamic IP address is much more difficult.

Protocol versions


There are several different versions of the protocols (or IP formats) in total, but only two of them are actively used:

IPv4 is a 32-bit Internet Protocol consisting of 4 numeric values ​​ranging from 0 to 255, separated by periods. It looks something like this:

Each of the numbers can be converted to a binary system and parameters such as the address of the network, node, host, computer can be determined. This is done using a subnet mask.

IPv6 is a newer version of the Internet Protocol (128-bit), which is composed of 8 hexadecimal combinations separated by a colon. It looks something like this:

fe70: 0000: 0000: 0000: 365f: d6af: fe63: 0001

In this case, leading zeros can be omitted, and zero groups that go in a row can be replaced with a double colon. Here's what you get if you simplify the writing:

fe70 :: 365f: d6af: fe63: 1

Over time, there were more and more computers connected to the Internet, which eventually led to a shortage of combinations in the IPv4 version. Unique IPs are simply over. Therefore, the IPv6 version was created, the number of combinations in which is very large.

How to find your address

The tools used will differ depending on which type of IP address you need to find out (local or global).

To find out the internal ip, you need to use the command line and the ipconfig command. How to do it:

  1. Click on "Start" - "All Programs".
  2. Select "Standard".
  3. And then select the "Command line" sub-item.
  4. In the window that appears, you need to register the ipconfig command.
  5. After that, information about your internal address will open (type, address itself, subnet mask, default gateway, etc.).

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